## Sunday, March 25, 2012

### Canonical Correlation Analysis for finding patterns in coupled fields First CCA pattern of Sea Level Pressure (SLP) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) monthly anomalies for the region between -180 °W to -70 °W and +30 °N to -30 °S.

The following post demonstrates the use of Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) for diagnosing coupled patterns in climate fields. The method produces similar results to that of  Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), but patterns reflect maximum correlation rather than maximum covariance. Furthermore, the output of the model is a combination of linear models that can be used for field prediction.

This particular method was illustrated by Barnett and Preisendorfer (1997) - it constructs a CCA model based on a truncated subset of EOF coefficients (i.e. "principle components") instead of using the original field (as with MCA). This truncation has several benefits for the fitting of the model - First, one reduces the amount of noise in the problem by eliminating the higher EOF modes, which represent poorly organized, small-scale features of the fields. Second, by using orthogonal functions, the algebra of the problem is simplified (see von Storch and Zweiers 1999 for details). Bretherton etal. (1992) reviewed several techniques for diagnosing coupled patterns and found the Barnett and Preisendorfer method (hereafter "BPCCA") and MCA to be the most robust.

## Thursday, March 22, 2012

### Exponentiation of a matrix (including pseudoinverse)

The following function "exp.mat" allows for the exponentiation of a matrix (i.e. calculation of a matrix to a given power). The function follows three steps:
1) Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the matrix
2) Exponentiation of the singular values
3) Re-calculation of the matrix with the new singular values

The most common case where the method is applied is in the calculation of a "Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse", or a matrix raised to the power of -1. In this case, the function returns the same result as the "pseudoinverse" function from the corpcor package (although maybe not as nicely implemented). This should also be analogous to the pinv function in Matlab.

Less common is the need to calculate other powers of matrices. For example, I use this function to calculate the square root of a matrix (and square root of the inverse of a matrix) within Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). I hope to write a post shortly on the use of CCA in identifying coupled patterns in climate data.

Below is the code for the exp.mat function as well as some demonstrations of its use in R.

## Wednesday, March 14, 2012

### A ridiculous proof of concept: xyz interpolation Ridiculous Orb

This is really the last one on this theme for a while... I had alluded to a combination of methods regarding xyz interpolation at the end of my last post and wanted to demonstrate this in a final example.

The ridiculousness that you see above involved two interpolation steps. First, a thin plate spline interpolation ("Tps" function of the fields package) is applied to the original random xyz field of distance to Mecca. This fitted model is then used to predict values at a new grid of 2° resolution. Finally, in order to avoid plotting polygons for each grid (which can be slow for fine grids), I obtain their projected coordinates with the mapproject function. Using these projected coordinates and their respective z values, a second interpolation is done with the "interp" function of the akima package onto a relatively fine grid of 1000x1000 positions. The result is a smooth field that can then be overlayed on the map using the "image" function (very fast).

So you may ask - When is this even necessary? I would say that it really only makes sense for projecting a filled.contour-type plot for relatively sparse geographic data. Be warned - for large amounts of xyz data, the interpolation algorithms can take a long time.

A couple of functions, found within this blog, are needed to reproduce the plot (earth.dist, color.palette).

the code to reproduce the figure...

## Monday, March 12, 2012

### XYZ geographic data interpolation, part 3

This will be probably be a final posting on interpolation of xyz data as I believe I have come to some conclusions to my original issues. I show three methods of xyz interpolation:
1. The quick and dirty method of interpolating projected xyz points (bi-linear)
2. Interpolation using Cartesian coordinates (bi-linear)
3. Interpolation using spherical coordinates and geographic distances (thin plate spline)